δέ

δέ,
A but: adversative and copulative Particle,
I answering to μέν (q. v.),

τὴν νῦν μὲν Βοιωτίαν, πρότερον δὲ Καδμηίδα γῆν καλουμένην Th.1.12

, etc.
II without preceding μέν,
1 adversative, expressing dist. opposition, αἰεί τοι τὰ κάκ' ἐστὶ φίλα . . μαντεύεσθαι, ἐσθλὸν δ' οὔτε τί πω εἶπας ll.1.108;

ὀρθῶς ἔλεξας, οὐ φίλως δέ μοι λέγεις E.Or.100

, cf. S.Ant.85, etc.;

τέθνηκεν ἀνδρὸς οὐδενός, θεοῦ δ' ὕπο Id.Ph.334

; so in Prose,

οὐκ ἐπὶ κακῷ, ἐλευθερώσει δέ . . Th.4.86

;

οἱ αἰχμάλωτοι . . ᾤχοντο εἰς Δεκέλειαν, οἱ δ' εἰς Μέγαρα X.HG1.2.14

, cf. Cyr.4.5.46;

ἡ δ' ἑτέρα IG2.652A45

.
2 copulative,
a in explanatory clauses, ξυνέβησαν . . τὰ μακρὰ τείχη ἑλεῖν ([etym.] ἦν δὲ σταδίων μάλιστα ὀκτώ) Th.4.66, cf. Il.7.48: when a Subst. is folld. by words in apposition,

Ἀρισταγόρῃ τῷ Μιλησίῳ, δούλῳ δὲ ἡμετέρῳ Hdt.7.8

.

β'; μήτηρ βασιλέως βασίλεια δ' ἐμή A.Pers.152

; so in answers, διπλᾶ λέγειν. —Answ.

διπλᾶδ' ὁρᾶν Id.Th.974

.
b in enumerations or transitions, Il.1.43-49,345-351, X.Cyr.1.2.1, etc.; with repetition of a word in different relations,

ὣς Ἀχιλεὺς θάμβησεν . ., θάμβησαν δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι Il.24.483

;

σάκος εἷλε . ., εἵλετο δ' ἔγχος 14.9

sq.;

Ζεύς ἐστιν αἰθήρ, Ζεὺς δὲ γῆ, Ζεὺς δ' οὐρανός A.Fr.70

;

κινεῖκραδίαν, κινεῖδὲ χόλον E. Med.99

;

ὄζει ἴων, ὄζει δὲ ῥόδων, ὄζει δ' ὑακίνθου Hermipp.82.8

; in rhetorical outbursts,

οὐκ ἂν εὐθέως εἴποιεν· τὸν δὲ βάσκανον, τὸν δὲ ὄλεθρον, τοῦτον δὲ ὑβρίζειν,—ἀναπνεῖν δέ. D.21.209

; in a climax, πᾶν γύναιον καὶ παιδίον καὶ θηρίον δέ nay even beast, Pl.Tht.171e, cf.X. HG5.2.37; in the combination

καὶ δέ Il.23.80

, al.,

καὶ . . δέ A.Pr. 973

, E.El.1117, etc., each particle retains its force.
c answering to τε (q. v.),

ἃ τῶν τε ἀποβαινόντων ἕνεκα ἄξια κεκτῆσθαι, πολὺ δὲ μᾶλλον αὐτὰ αὑτῶν Pl.R.367c

.
3 implying causal connexion, less direct than γάρ, Il.6.160, Od.1.433.
4 in questions, with implied opposition,

ἑόρακας δ', ἔφη, τὴν γυναῖκα; X.Cyr.5.1.4

;

καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης, εἰπέ μοι, ἔφη, κύνας δὲ τρέφεις; Id.Mem.2.9.2

, cf. 2.1.26, S. Ant.1172: in Trag. (not in Com. or Oratt.), when the speaker turns from one person to another, the voc. stands first, then the pers. Pron. folld. by δέ, as

Μενέλαε, σοὶ δὲ τάδε λέγω . . E.Or.622

, etc.; also in Hdt.,

ὦ δέσποτα, ἐγὼ δὲ ταῦτα ἐποίησα 1.115

.
b τί δέ; what then? to mark a transition in dialogue; v. τίς.
II in apodosi:
1 after hypothetical clauses, εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώωσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι if they will not give it, then I . ., Il.1.137, cf. Od.12.54;

εἰ μηδὲ τοῦτο βούλει ἀποκρίνασθαι, σὺ δὲ τοὐντεῦθεν λέγε X.Cyr.5.5.21

, cf. Pi.O.3.43 (v.l.), A.Ag.1060, Hdt.5.1, etc.
b after temporal or relative clauses, with ἐπεί, ἕως, etc., Il.24.255, Hdt.9.70, etc.;

μέχρι . . εἶχον τὰ βέλη, οἱ δὲ ἀντεῖχον Th.3.98

; with demonstr. Pronouns or Advbs. answering to a preceding relative, οἵηπερ φύλλων γενεή,

τοίη δὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν Il.6.146

, etc.;

ἆθλα οἷς κεῖται ἀρετῆς μέγιστα, τοῖς δὲ καὶ ἄνδρες ἄριστοι πολιτεύουσιν Th.2.46

;

τοὺς δ' ἔλαβε τυράννους . . τούτους δὲ . . ἐξεδίδου Hdt.5.37

, cf. Isoc.4.98, Pl.La.194d;

οἷα μὲν ἕκαστα ἐμοὶ φαίνεται τοιαῦτα μὲν ἔστιν ἐμοί, οἷα δὲ σοί, τοιαῦτα δὲ αὖ σοί Id.Tht.152a

: sts. after a participle,

οἰόμενοι . . τιμῆς τεύξεσθαι, ἀντὶ δὲ τούτων οὐδ' ὅμοιοι . . ἐσόμεθα X.An.6.6.16

, cf. Isoc.15.71 (v.l.).
2 to resume after an interruption or parenthesis,

χρόνου δὲ ἐπιγινομένου καὶ κατεστραμμένων σχεδὸν πάντων . .,—κατεστραμμένων δὲ τούτων . . Hdt.1.28

,29;

νῦν δ' αὖ πάλιν ὑπό τε πλούτου διαθρυπτόμενος . . καὶ ὑπ' ἀνθρώπων . . ὑπὸ τοιούτων δέ . . X.Cyr.7.2.23

; with an anacoluthon,

ἡ δὲ ψυχὴ ἄρα,—οἷ ἂν θεὸς θέλῃ . . τῇ ἐμῇ ψυχῇ ἰτέον, αὕτη δὲ δή . . Pl.Phd.80d

: for δ' οὖν, v. οὖν.
3 to begin a story, ἦμος δ' ἠέλιος . . well, when the sun . ., Od.4.400.
4 to introduce a proof, τεκμήριον δέ, σημεῖον δέ, v. sub vocc.
B POSITION of δέ. It usu. stands second: hence freq. between Art. and Subst. or Prep. and case; but also after Subst., or words forming a connected notion, hence it may stand third,

γυναῖκα πιστὴν δ' ἐν δόμοις εὕροι A.Ag.606

, cf. Th.411, Eu.531, S.Ph.959, etc.; fourth, Id.OT485, E.Hel.688, A.Pr.323,383, etc.; fifth, ib. 401codd.; even sixth, Epigen.7(codd. Poll.); so in Prose after a neg., οὐχ ὑπ' ἐραστοῦ δέ, to avoid confusion between οὐ δέ and οὐδέ, Pl.Phdr.227c.

Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό). 2014.

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